January 28, 2022

Conception and Practice of Developing Circular Economy in Mining Enterprises

First, the concept of circular economy and background
(1) The concept of circular economy
The circular economy is an ecological economy that integrates clean production and comprehensive utilization of waste. It counters the one-way flow of traditional economic “resources-products-pollution emissions” and achieves a virtuous circle of “resources-products-waste utilization (resources)”. The development of circular economy is the essential requirement for implementing and implementing the scientific development concept. It is the key to changing the mode of economic growth, improving the quality and efficiency of economic growth, and adhering to the people-oriented principle of achieving comprehensive and coordinated economic and social development.
(2) Background of the circular economy
The invention and use of the steam engine opened the prelude of the first industrial revolution, marking the beginning of the industrial economy era, and also beginning the predatory exploitation and utilization of natural resources in human history, and abandoned it to natural emissions. Object. Due to the unprecedented increase in productivity, a large number of development resources → mass production → mass consumption → mass production of waste has become the only way for mankind to pursue maximum profits and seek economic development, thereby increasing the pressure on resources and the environment. Faced with this increasing pressure, since the 1960s, human understanding of environmental issues has continued to deepen, and the idea of ​​sustainable development has gradually taken shape. The American economist Boulding first proposed the concept of circular economy in the "Spaceship Economic View"; in 1987, the Norwegian Prime Minister, Mrs. Brent, first proposed sustainable development in the "Our Common Future" report. The new theory and systematically expounded the connotation of sustainable development; in 1987, the United Nations Environment and Development Committee formally proposed a sustainable development model, and humans have been looking for an effective carrier to practice this model. Circular economy theory and practice are produced under this situation.
    Second, the development status of circular economy
The developed countries in the world have developed a circular economy for more than 10 years. By the end of the 20th century, they have gradually developed into large-scale social practice activities and formed national laws and systems. Germany is a pioneer in the development of circular economy. Since the implementation of the Waste Treatment Law in 1972, the implementation of the Circular Economy and Waste Management Law in 1996 has been reducing the amount of waste generated, and the recycling rate is rising. The initial cycle utilization rate is about 25%, 35% in 1996 and 50% in 2000. From an economic point of view, waste utilization has also been successful. At present, the annual utilization value of waste utilization is 40 billion euros and the number of employed people is 240,000. The waste treatment industry has become an important economic and employment development driver.
China's circular economy is developing slowly. Waste recycling is an important part of the circular economy. However, as China's production and consumption scale has increased substantially, the recycling of waste has not been correspondingly developed, and in some respects it has even shrunk. In the world's $600 billion environmental protection industry market in 2000, Japan accounted for 386.2 billion US dollars, the United States nearly 100 billion US dollars, and China only 20 billion US dollars. In recent years, under the urgent need of the relevant government departments to actively promote and improve the environment, some regions and enterprises in China have gradually carried out practical explorations of circular economy: (1) Actively promote clean production at the enterprise level. In 2002, China promulgated "clean production." Promotion Law; (2) In accordance with the concept of circular economy, an eco-industrial park has been established in a relatively concentrated area or development zone; (3) pilot projects for circular economy in cities and provinces, and currently there are provinces such as Liaoning and Guiyang. The city began to explore the development model of circular economy at the regional level.
  Third, the importance of developing a circular economy
(1) Developing circular economy is an important measure to ensure China's resource security
China's per capita resources are far below the world average: 1/3 of cultivated land, 1/6 of forests, 1/3 of water resources, and 1/2 of minerals. However, at present, China's resource development and utilization methods are extensive, the level of comprehensive utilization is low, and waste is serious. The energy consumption per unit of output value is 2 to 3 times that of the world average. The energy consumption per unit of energy-consuming products is 40% higher than that of foreign advanced countries. The consumption of raw materials accounts for about 75% of the production cost of the enterprise. In the historical process of China's industrialization, there are no cheap resources in the industrialization of developed countries. Accelerating the development of circular economy is a major strategic measure to implement resource strategy, promote sustainable use of resources and ensure national economic security. It is of great significance to the sustainable development of China's economy and society.
(2) Developing circular economy is an important way to prevent pollution and protect the environment
At present, although the national investment in pollution prevention and control has reached 500 billion yuan, the environmental pollution in China is still quite serious. The chemical oxygen demand in the water and the SO 2 in the atmosphere exceed 80% and 60% of the environmental capacity, respectively. In the past 20 years, China's urban waste has increased by about 7%. In 2005, the total stock of domestic garbage in 668 cities nationwide reached more than 10 billion tons, and it can no longer afford the resource consumption and environmental pollution brought about by the traditional development model. The implementation of the principles of reduction, recycling, recycling and restructuring will significantly reduce primary resource consumption and pollutant emissions. The development of circular economy first requires the implementation of cleaner production and the reduction of pollutants from the source.
(3) Developing a circular economy is an objective requirement for coping with economic global integration
After China's accession to the WTO, enterprises are facing more intense market competition. To survive and develop, enterprises must change their growth mode and take the road of connotation development. Developing a circular economy and promoting the transformation of economic growth mode can reduce product costs, enhance enterprise competitiveness, improve economic efficiency, and enhance the competitiveness of enterprises. China in the 21st century is both an economic power and an environmental power. Under the situation of global economic integration, China must bear the environmental responsibility as a big country and prevent the transfer of environmental pollution. The development of circular economy can not only reduce pollutant emissions, but also better fulfill China's environmental responsibilities and obligations, and it can alleviate resource shortages within a certain scope.
Fourth, the practice of developing circular economy in Anshan Iron and Steel Mine
Mines are important enterprises for resource development and utilization. They are the focus of promoting circular economy and advocate green digital concept. They can obtain considerable economic and social benefits for building ecological mines and maintaining sustainable development of mines.
In recent years, Qidashan iron ore to the practice of circular economy a useful attempt. Since 2000, the mine has developed a circular economy, built a green digital mine as a development prospect, and made a mining greening and mining area reclamation plan in parallel with the mining plan. The mining area covers an area of ​​1121hm 2 and the planned green area is 667hm 2 , which realizes the goal of gardening in the plant area, forest shading on both sides of the road, and forestation around the mining area. So far, has invested over 100 million yuan, the use of human 25000 people, a total of more than 1 million trees, flowers 1.09 million, lawn 21.18hm 2, reclamation green 125hm 2, mining realize greening rate of 91%, reclamation of green The rate reached 43.6%. The improvement of the ecological environment of the mining area reduced the dust content of the mining area from 4.59mg/m 3 before re-tanning to 1.25mg/m 3 . In 2006, the state invested another 36 million yuan for the Qi Dashan iron ore reclamation and ecological restoration project. The newly added pit area is 2023 mu (1 mu = 667 m 2 ), the forest land is 2695 mu, the grass and shrub land is 4323 mu, and the construction land is 339. mu. The reclaimed greening in the mining area not only improved the ecological environment, but also provided leisure places for the workers in the mining area and nearby residents, achieving a double harvest of economic and social benefits.
Qi Dashan Iron Mine not only pays attention to the improvement of ecological environment, but also attaches great importance to the extension and coupling of the internal industrial chain of the enterprise. It has invested more than 2 million yuan in the mining branch to introduce the automatic GPS dispatching system of the stope, which can improve the operating efficiency of the car by 5%. The annual cost is reduced by more than 5 million yuan; the open-pit mining water is purified and sent to the thermal power and mineral processing branch to be reused, saving more than 3 million tons of water resources per year; building marginal ore recycling and utilization projects, from the abandoned rocks every year. The screening and recovery of more than 1 million tons of ore has not only improved resource utilization, reduced the pressure on the rock yard, but also created considerable economic and social benefits for the enterprise. The ore dressing plant invested millions of yuan to establish a sewage recycling station, saving millions of tons of new water every year, achieving zero discharge of ore dressing water; changing the ring through a strong magnetic machine, increasing the tailings re-election system, optimizing the float The technological transformation of the selection process has reduced the grade of tailings, improved the recycling rate of mineral resources, and recovered 80,000 tons of iron concentrate annually. The thermal power plant introduced the DCS automatic control system to increase the capacity of the steam turbine, and changed the boiler water mill dust to electrostatic dust removal and sonic wave soaking, which greatly improved the efficiency, work efficiency and production organization effectiveness.
V. Existing problems and thinking
(1) The laws and regulations related to circular economy are not sound
Under the traditional mode of production and consumption, the recycling of resources has not received sufficient attention. Some pollution and waste emissions are not included in the cost, and recycling of waste resources is often more expensive than the development and use of ready-made resources, resulting in considerable The company only pays attention to immediate interests, disregards long-term interests, and only considers short-term behaviors that are economically beneficial and disregard social benefits. Under the current market economy conditions, if the state does not have the corresponding laws, regulations and regulations, the development of circular economy is an empty talk. The development of China's circular economy started late, the corresponding laws and regulations are lacking, and the compulsory and operability is not enough.
(2) The backward utilization of resources is backward
The backwardness of enterprise technology and technical equipment is an important factor in the quality and efficiency of China's economic growth and serious pollution. China's resource conservation, comprehensive utilization and environmental protection industry technology level is relatively backward, the overall level of environmental protection products is only equivalent to the level of the international 80s, the level of comprehensive utilization of resources and technology needs to be improved.
(3) Insufficient investment in developing circular economy
Although the country has some of the funds in support of comprehensive utilization of resources and energy efficiency, but failed to establish the necessary financial support system as a whole to consider the development of recycling economy from the financial, tax and other policies also lack the necessary support policy. Since the investment in pollution control and the expenditure on sewage charges in the short-term are generally lower than the capital investment required by the enterprise to develop the circular economy, in the case of shortage of funds, the enthusiasm of enterprises to invest in the circular economy is not high, and the investment is low.
(4) Reflections on the development of circular economy
1. It is necessary to strengthen the legislation of circular economy, combine guiding and coercively, and give priority to the special legislation of resource development and waste utilization of mining enterprises, and legalize and standardize them.
2. Give full play to the encouragement, guidance and support of preferential policies, adhere to the combination of encouragement and restriction, and form an incentive mechanism for the development of circular economy.
3. Define the concept of circular economy in the development plan of mining enterprises, and formulate corresponding special plans and supporting policies to guide and promote the development of circular economy.
4. Fully rely on the technical strength of mine research, design units and universities to accelerate the use of high-tech and advanced applicable technologies to improve the technological level of circular economy development, and select advanced and applicable technologies with landmark targets and broad promotion prospects. Research and solve the problem of comprehensive utilization of mine tailings and rock waste and complementary connection technology within the enterprise.
5. It is necessary to carry out a variety of publicity and education activities in various forms, and focus on cultivating people's awareness of saving resources, energy, and recycling materials.
    Conclusion
Practice shows that the development of circular economy is the fundamental way to alleviate the contradiction of resource constraints, an important measure to improve economic efficiency, and the need to meet the economic globalization and the realization of green barriers in international trade. The development of a circular economy is promising, not only can reduce energy consumption, reduce pollution, reduce production costs, but also achieve the unification of economic and social benefits, which can be said to be more than one.

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