January 28, 2022

New technology and new technology of iron ore flotation - a brief history of development

In the middle of the 19th century, using a difference in the hydrophobic-hydrophilic nature of mineral surfaces, a process for processing ore began industrial applications, called flotation and beneficiation , also known as flotation. The small-scale special application of this process can be traced back to ancient times. When gold sand washing, the so-called "golden goose blade" approach, is dipped in vegetable oils, for, Sticky traps fine gold particles in the river sand in goose, which is the use of gold particles formed in the hydrophobic or oleophilic nature of the oil The flotation process that is captured by the pellets. This method is still in use today. Flotation technology is also used in the selection and processing of ancient Chinese talc , clay, various mineral paints and various minerals. The so-called "Amoy, Cheng, Fly, Drop" processes, such as the ancient books and the folks, include the "film flotation" process using mineral hydrophobicity. Song Yingxing, a famous scholar of the Ming Dynasty, wrote about such methods in his book Tiangong Kaiwu (Ming Chongzhen 10 years, 1637). For example, the selection process of the sand is: "When it is taken, it is cut into the giant iron mill, crushed like fine dust, and then into the tank. Note that the water has been immersed for three days, and the person who floats up is dumped into the tank. ...". This is still floating on the third day of the immersion, apparently the hydrophobicity of the fine stone and less sand, it is impossible to sort by gravity. The method of recycling gold and silver fine powder contained in the waste utensils in the same book is more subtle: "Where the gold foil utensils are scraped and cremation when they are abandoned, the gold is still hidden in the ash, and the oil is dripped. With the bottom of the gathering, the panning into the furnace, no difference." This is no different from the modern selective floc flotation method.
When purifying and processing mineral medicinal materials, they are often co-cooked with various medicinal plants before panning. In addition to the drug compatibility, the organic substances (acids, bases and esters, ketones, terpenes, etc.) also act as flotation agents (including collection, blistering, inhibition, etc.). For example, the book was written very early, and the process of sorting mica recorded in the Compendium of Materia Medica revised by Li Shizhen in the Ming Dynasty was. "Every kilogram of small gentian, purple-backed sunflower, raw licorice, and yellow juice, each placed in a porcelain pot, the next day, the water is two simmers, boiled for seven days and nights, with water slammed into it, floating like The rookie is going to go, so three times clean." This process is close to the modern froth flotation method. These descriptions may be the earliest records of flotation techniques. Therefore, we believe that the most important method of sorting today—the flotation method known as the miracle in the history of mining and metallurgy technology is a great invention in ancient China.
In the West, it was reported that in the 15th century there was a method of sorting minerals with oil. In 1860, the British proposed the earliest patent for sulphide ore flotation. By 1898, the "all-oil flotation method" using a large amount of oil began industrial applications. 1902 proposes the use of soap and a small amount of oil processing of sulphide ore "aggregate flotation"; 1907 "Surface flotation" of industrial applications; the early 20th century "froth flotation" first in Australia for the treatment of lead zinc sulphide ore The re-election of tailings, from which foam flotation has become the main flotation process for the treatment of ore. In the development of froth flotation, soluble foaming agent was used in 1909, 1924) fatty acid soap was used for flotation non-sulfurization ore, and yellow drug collector was used in 1925. Cyanide and acid were successively used from 1922 to 1929. The use of alkali as a regulator and various types of flotation machines is of great significance for expanding the application of flotation technology and improving process indicators.
After long-term research and application development, flotation has become an important method for processing ore. Estimated worldwide each year by the flotation of sulfide ore processing, non-sulfide ore and coal up to tens of tons. In the past 30 years, the flotation method has been extended to areas other than beneficiation. For example, it is used for the treatment of metallurgical products such as copper- nickel bismuth, smelting furnace slag, water smelting anode mud and metal in waste liquid; in the chemical industry, the separation of oil, protein, dye and chemical crystal drugs is recycled; in the paper industry, pulp waste liquid treatment and Recovering cellulose, removing ink when waste paper is recycled; separating stevia from rye in the agricultural and food industries, separating cheese from milk; removing parasite eggs from water, sorting bacteria, and industrial wastewater in medical biology , the disposal of waste residue, and so on. The flotation method also has a good application prospect in the future development of marine resources. Since the founding of New China more than 30 years ago, there are currently 900 large and small flotation plants in China, dealing with black and non-ferrous metal mines, non-metallic mines and coal. China has fully mastered flotation technology and science, and is in a leading position in some aspects.

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