January 21, 2022

Tool types and material analysis and use in machine tool processing

Commonly used turning tools have the following types:

1 High carbon steel:

High carbon steel turning tool is a kind of carbon steel with carbon content between 0.8% and 1.5%. It is used after quench hardening. The friction in the cutting process is easily tempered and replaced by other tools such as high speed steel. Generally only suitable for cutting soft metal materials, commonly used SK1, SK2,,, SK7 and so on.

2 High Speed ​​Steel:

High-speed steel is a steel-based alloy commonly known as white turning tool, carbon content of 0.7 to 0.85% of the carbon steel by adding W, Cr, V and Co and other alloy elements. For example, 18-4-4 high-speed steel materials contain 18% tungsten, 4% chromium, and 4% vanadium in high-speed steel. The friction heat generated in high-speed steel lathe cutting can be as high as 6000C, suitable for turning below 1000rpm and thread turning, generally used high-speed steel turning tools such as SKH2, SKH4A, SKH5, SKH6, SKH9 and so on.

3 Non-cast iron alloy tools:

This is an alloy of cobalt, chromium and tungsten. Because it is difficult to cut and manufacture by casting, it is also called superhard cast alloy. The most representative is stellite. Its tool toughness and wear resistance are excellent, and it is under 8200C temperature. Its hardness is still unaffected, and its heat resistance is far beyond that of high speed steel. It is suitable for high speed and deep cutting work.

4 Sintering carbide tools:

The carbonized cutting tool is a powder metallurgy product. The main component of the tungsten carbide cutting tool is 50%~90% tungsten, and titanium, molybdenum, niobium, etc. are used as a binder for the cobalt powder, which is then heated and sintered. Carbonized cutters are harder than any other material, and they are three times harder than high carbon steels. They are suitable for cutting hard metals or stone materials. Because they are hard and brittle, they can only be made into sheets and then welded to be more flexible. On the tool shank, when such a blade is dulled or cracked, another blade or a new blade can be replaced. This enough tool is called a discarded turning tool. Carbonized cutting tools are divided into P, M and K according to the different cutting properties of the international standard (ISO), and are identified by three colors: blue, yellow and red. Type P is suitable for cutting steel materials. There are P01, P10 and P20. , P30, P40, P50 six categories, P01 is a high-speed fine turning tool, small number, high wear resistance, P50 is a low-speed rough turning tool, a large number, high toughness, knife handle painted blue to identify it. Class K is suitable for cutting hard and brittle materials such as stone and cast iron, including K01, K10, K20, K30 and K40. K01 is a high-speed precision turning tool and K40 is a low-speed rough turning tool. The tool holder is painted in red to identify it. M class is between P class and M class, suitable for cutting tough materials, such as not, this type of tool handle is painted with yellow to identify it.

5 Ceramic turning tools:

The ceramic turning tool is made of alumina powder, adding a small amount of elements, and then sintered at a high temperature. Its hardness, heat resistance, and cutting speed are higher than that of tungsten carbide, but because of its brittleness, it is not suitable for discontinuous or heavy turning. Only suitable for high speed machining.

6 Diamond Tools

For advanced surface finishing, light can be produced using round or sharp-edged industrial diamonds. A smoother surface can be obtained, which is mainly used for precision turning of copper alloys or light alloys. High speeds must be used in turning. The minimum speed is 60~100m/min, usually 200~300m/min.

7 Boron oxide cubic boron oxide (CBN)

Is the material promoted in recent years, hardness and wear resistance is second only to diamonds, this tool is suitable for processing hard, wear-resistant ferroalloys and nickel-base alloys, cobalt-based alloys.

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