January 21, 2022

What are the selection methods for spodumene?

Spodumene beneficiation methods are hand-selected method and the flotation, the flotation method is flotation method and reverse flotation, flotation is frequently used, its essence is finely ground ore, flotation spodumene In the alkaline slurry of sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate, after high concentration, strong stirring, multiple washing and de-sludge, adding fatty acid (such as oleic acid) or its soap as a collector to directly float the spodumene After three selections, a spodumene concentrate with a grade greater than 5% LiO2 and a recovery of 70% to 75% can be obtained. A mine ore in Xinjiang, China contains 1.3% LiO2. After normal temperature flotation, the grade of spodumene concentrate is 4% to 5%, and the recovery rate is 85% to 90%.

The reverse flotation process of spodumene is to inhibit the spodumene in a lime-adjusted alkaline medium using dextrin, starch, etc., and use a cationic collector (such as the acetate alcohol of dextrin) to float the silicate. A gangue mineral, the product in the tank is a spodumene concentrate, and if necessary, an HF resinate foaming agent is used to further extract iron minerals.

(1) The hand selection method is selected according to the appearance characteristics (color, gloss, and crystal form).

(2) Flotation method

1 acid method (sub-mixing method and priority method) The acid mixing flotation process uses amine acetate to float out mica , then hydrofluoric acid activates beryl and feldspar , and the mixed concentrate is washed (added chlorine) Calcium acid) and drug removal, flotation of beryl with petroleum sulfonate. The acid process priority process uses sulfuric acid, aluminum sulfate and the like to adjust the slurry, and the cationic collector is used to remove the mica, then the ore washing, concentration, and hydrofluoric acid treatment, and the fatty acid (such as oleic acid) and neutral oil are used in the soda medium. Class of medicine flotation beryl.

2 alkaline alkali flotation process is to pre-treat the ore with alkali (sodium hydroxide-sodium sulfide-sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide-sodium carbonate) before grinding or flotation, and wash and de-sludge, or Without this process, a (hot) fatty acid collector, emulsifier and foaming agent flotation beryl are added.

Both spodumene and beryl are aluminosilicate minerals that are often symbiotic in the same pegmatite deposit; their minerals are non-magnetic and relatively close in density and similar in relative density to gangue minerals. Therefore, it is difficult to separate beryl and spodumene by magnetic separation and re-election methods, and only by flotation separation method. On the other hand, due to the similarity of buoyancy, hornblende, tourmaline , biotite and muscovite with beryl and spodumene, it is difficult to enrich and separate beryl and spodumene. .

The flotation separation of beryl and spodumene generally has mixed flotation and preferential flotation (priority flotation beryl, re-selected spodumene, preferential flotation spodumene, re-selected beryl, or preferential flotation of lithium The two principle processes of pyroxene and then lithium lanthanum are mixed and separated, and the cation collector and the anion collector can be used for flotation.

(1) Priority flotation When cation collectors are used, silicate minerals have better floatability. Therefore, when separating beryl and spodumene, it is necessary to add a modifier.

1 preferential flotation of spodumene, re-selected beryl (first inhibition of beryl, preferential flotation of spodumene, and then activation of beryl and flotation) When preferential flotation of spodumene, mainly using sodium fluoride and wood The sulfonate inhibits beryl and gangue; the lignosulfonate forms a hydrophilic film on the surface of the beryl and gangue minerals, thereby preventing the attachment and adsorption of the collector (such as oleic acid) on its surface. However, the effect of lignosulfonate on spodumene mineral particles is relatively small, so that preferential flotation of spodumene can be ensured.

For example, in a low-alkali medium, sodium carbonate alkali lignin (solubilized with alkali to dissolve lignosulfonate) is added to the ball mill for a long time, at which time beryl and gangue minerals are inhibited, using oxidized paraffin soap, naphthenic Acid soap and diesel flotation spodumene. The flotation tailings use sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and ferric chloride to activate beryl and inhibit gangue, as well as oxidized paraffin soap and diesel flotation beryl.

2 preferential flotation of beryl, re-selected spodumene (first inhibition of spodumene, preferential flotation beryl, re-activated spodumene and flotation) first remove the easy-floating minerals, then in sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide Inhibition of spodumene in a high alkali medium adjusted with sodium carbonate, flotation of beryl with fatty acids (such as oxidized paraffin soap and diesel); activation of flotation tailings with sodium hydroxide, followed by fatty acids (such as oxidized paraffin soap and diesel) Flotation spodumene.

When using anionic collector, suppression modifier spodumene descending order: sodium fluoride, lignin sulfonates, phosphates, sodium carbonate, sodium fluoride, sodium silicate, starch, these The inhibitor has a great inhibitory effect on beryl. In neutral and weakly alkaline media, a large amount (1 kg/ton or more) of sodium fluoride, lignosulfonate, phosphate, carbonate, etc. has strong The inhibition effect, while a small amount of sodium silicate, starch and the like on the inhibition of beryl is not obvious. In strong alkaline media, the inhibitory effect of these agents is generally weakened, but the inhibition of spodumene is generally enhanced.

3 preferentially flotation part of lithium, then carry out lithium lanthanum mixed separation and then separate sodium fluoride and sodium carbonate as a regulator and add to the ball mill, using fatty acid soap to preferentially float part of spodumene, sodium hydroxide is added to the flotation tailings Activated with calcium ions, and then mixed with flotation of spodumene-beryl with fatty acid soap. The mixed coarse concentrate is treated with sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide and acid, and alkaline water glass is heated (for example, 85 ° C) to float green. Column concentrate.

(2) Mixed flotation flotation tailings containing 0.08% BeO spodumene, stirred at 0.9% kg/ton hydrofluoric acid for 5 minutes (pH=3.8) at 30% solid concentration, stirred slurry in spiral classification After washing the excess acid in the machine, stir it with 0.41 kg/ton of sodium silicate, 0.14 kg/ton of sodium hydroxide and 0.41 kg/ton of oleic acid for 5 minutes at a solid concentration of 30%, and enter the coarse selection tank. At Ph=7.3, a rough selection and three selections were made to obtain a concentrate containing 1.25% Be0 and 4.45% Li20, and the recoveries were 89.1% and 65.8%, respectively.

(3) Selective separation of lithium and lanthanum concentrates Lithium and lanthanum concentrates generally contain mica, feldspar and quartz , and need to be further selected for removal. The removal method is to mix the coarse concentrate with sulfuric acid (for example, about 4.50 kg/ton), wash away the fatty acid, and then stir with about 1 kg/ton of sulfuric acid and 90 g/ton of ammonium acetate. After removal of mica, 94% of the concentrate containing mica can be obtained, and the tailings are further selected by spodumene.

When spodumene is selected, the above tailings are stirred with about 700 g/ton of oleic acid for one rough selection and secondary selection, and a spodumene with a recovery of about 84% and containing 6.6 % Li20 can be obtained. Concentrate, at this time, about 80% of the beryl is suppressed into the tailings, and then the beryl is enriched in the tailings. At this time, 900 g/ton of hydrofluoric acid is used for stirring, and then the excess acid is washed away; after that, 136 g/ton of sodium hydroxide and 218 g/ton of oleic acid are used for slurrying, and beryl is carried out. Flotation, the obtained coarse concentrate is selected twice under the condition of pH=7, and the beryl concentrate containing 6.37 % BeO can be obtained. The recovery rate of the operation is 76%, and the recovery of spodumene flotation tailings is obtained. The rate is 66%.

Gold and silver extraction methods include chemical processing and physical beneficiation two categories. Physical beneficiation includes flotation and re-election. Flotation is widely used to treat various vein gold and silver ore sulfides. Re-election is commonly used to treat low-grade gold. The chemical beneficiation method mainly includes cyanidation method, thiourea method, thiosulfate method, aqueous solution chlorination method, organic nitrile method, polysulfide method, odor extraction solution leaching method, bacterial leaching method, amalgamation method, stone sulphur mixture law. For some refractory gold ores, oxidative roasting, pressurized oxidation, bacterial oxidation and alkali leaching, electrooxidation, nitric acid, ammonium polysulfide, and ferric chloride are also used. In the chemical ore dressing method of gold and silver, the cyanidation process is the most mature, the extraction rate is high, and the adaptability to ore is strong. After decades of research and improvement, the carbon slurry method, the resin slurry method and the heap leaching method have been developed. The new non-filter cyanidation process is the most widely used method in production.

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